- Scientist claims entire universe existed before Big Bang
- Cosmic radiation discovered by NASA is older than Big Bang
- Universe left “trail” of radiation forming in concentric circles
Maps of circles of cosmic background radiaton may be a clue to the events that occured before the Big Bang. Picture: NASA
WHAT if there was an entire universe that existed before the Big Bang?
This is the theory of a leading Oxford University scientist who claims to have evidence of stars and galaxies that existed long before the universe as we know it formed, The Daily Mail reported.
Professor Roger Penrose says that cosmic radiation discovered by one of NASA’s telescopes is older than the Big Bang.
The researcher shows that the cosmic radiation background (CMB) formed in concentric circles that had cooled to a temperature of -270C over the 14 billion years since the universe came into being.
Prof Penrose and his colleague Professor Vahe Gurzadyan of the Yerevan State University in Armenia claim to have 12 examples of the circles, some of which have five rings – meaning that the objects had five massive events in their history.
European Space Agency’s Planck satellite took mapped the existence of microwave radiation acorss the whole sky. Picture: ESA
The rings appear around clusters of galaxy where the background radiation is incredibly low.
The scientists believe the circles are imprints of violent gravitational forces generated by black holes that existed long before the Big Bang.
The research casts doubt upon the widely-held theory that the universe has continued to expand since the Big Bang and will continue to do so until it ceases to exist.
Prof Penrose says that his research shows that all matter in the universe will eventually be consumed by black holes, leaving only energy behind which will in turn trigger the next Big Bang.
“In the scheme that I’m proposing, you have an exponential expansion but it’s not in our aeon – I use the term to describe [the period] from our Big Bang until the remote future,” Prof Penrose told the BBC.
“I claim that this aeon is one of a succession of such things, where the remote future of the previous aeons somehow becomes the Big Bang of our aeon.”
The sky distribution of the BOSS massive galaxies(Image: Michael Blanton and the SDSS-III Collaboration)
Sound waves that rang out in the early universe sculpted its structure. The best measurement yet of their imprint on galaxies is a boon to dark-energy studies.
About 30,000 years after the big bang, matter collapsed around dense seeds of dark matter. Outward pressure from photons caused the collapsing matter to rebound, creating acoustic waves, like ripples in a pond. These ripples expanded until the universe cooled to a certain temperature, stalling the waves. More matter existed at the centres and edges of these ripples, and therefore should have led to more galaxies there.
This is exactly what the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) sees in a study of 265,000 galaxies. When the BOSS team measured the distance between pairs of galaxies between 4.5 billion and 6.3 billion light years from Earth, they found an excess of galaxy pairs separated by 500 million light years (arxiv.org/abs/1203.6594).
That is the expected radius of the sound waves – if the universe’s expansion has been accelerated in line with the leading model of dark energy. Called the cosmological constant, the model suggests that the amount of energy in a given volume of space does not vary with time.