The name Moses derives from the Egyptian word mose, meaning “offspring” or “heir”, as in Tuthmose: “born of Thoth”. In the book of Exodus it is stated that Moses’ life was under threat when the Pharoah decreed death to newborn Israelite males.The reason for this was that their were too many Israelites in Egypt and they were becoming too powerful. So it was pronounced that every son born should be cast into the river. An Israelite woman placed her son in a basket of rushes and set him among the water reeds. The Pharoah’s daughter discovered the baby and rescued him, she paid a woman to nurse him and eventually adopted him. It was she who named him Moses. In the very next verse of the bible, Moses appears as a grown man.
Historical linguist, Ahmed Osman, has conducted an in-depth research into the identity of Moses using Egyptian records. He believes there was an influential Israelite named Yusef- Yuya (Joseph), who was chief minister to the Pharoahs Tuthmosis IV and his sonAmenhotep III. When Tuthmosis died, Amenhotep married his younger sister Sitamun so he could inherit the throne.Shortly afterwards in order to have an adult wife, Sitamun was only a child at this time, Amenhotep married Tiye, the daughter of Yusef- Yuya. It was decreed however, that no son born to Tiye could inherit the throne,there was a general fear that the Israelite relatives were gaining too much power in Egypt. So when Tiye was pregnant, certain palace officials thought that her child should be killed at birth if a son.
Arrangements were made for Tiye’s Israelite relatives to nurse the boy. Amenhotep (born 1394 BCE), was educated at Heliopolis by the Egyptian priests of Ra and spent his teenage years at Thebes During this time his mother had become more influential than the senior queen Sitamun-who had only borne a daughter- Nefertiti. When Amenhotep III suffered ill health, young Amenhotep was brought to the fore.He married Nefertiti in order to reign as co -regent and when his father died he succeeded as Amenhotep IV.
Because of his part Israelite upbringing, Amenhotep IV couldn’t accept the Egyptian dieties and developed the notion of Aten – an omnipotent god with no image, represented by a solar disk with downward rays. Amenhotep changed his name to Akhenaten (Glorious spirit of the Aten) and closed all the temples of the Egyptian Gods making himself very unpopular.There were plots against his life and threats of armed insurrection if he didn’t allow traditional gods to be worshipped alongside the faceless Aten. He was eventually forced to abdicate in favour of his cousin Smenkhkare. Akhenaten was banished from Egypt and fled to the land of Midian. Here, he took another wife, an Israelite named Zipporah. Nefertiti had died a short while before. He then made arrangements to return to Egypt to retrieve his supporters who believed he was the rightful heir, the royal”mose”, as they had been placed in bondage under the new, harsh laws.
Moses is described in the Old Testament as being “an Egyptian” and “slow of speech” in the language of the Israelites. Ahmed Osman believes that Moses was in fact the Pharoah Akhenaten. Akhenaten introduced monotheism and closed the temples making himself extremely unpopular. He was later forced to abdicate and banished from Egypt. He returned to lead his supporters out of Egypt to a new life.
Akhenaten is the most mysterious and interesting of all the ancient Egyptian pharaohs. He created a revolution in religion, philosophy, and art that resulted in the introduction of the first monotheistic form of worship known in history. Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanalysis, was the first to suggest a connection between Moses and Akhenaten. In his last book, Moses and Monotheism, published in 1939, Freud argued that the biblical Moses was an official in the court of Akhenaten, and an adherent of the Aten(Ra) religion. After the death of Akhenaten, Freud’s theory goes, Moses selected the Israelite tribe living east of the Nile Delta to be his chosen people, took them out of Egypt at the time of the Exodus, and passed on to them the tenets of Akhenaten’s religion. When modern archaeologists came across the strangely-drawn figure of Akhenaten(that represented a different & seemingly odd artistic style he introduced in Egypt) in the ruins of Tell el-Amarna in the middle of the 19th century, they were not sure what to make of him. Some thought he was a woman disguised as a king. By the early years of the 20th century when the city of Amarna had been excavated and more became known about him and his family, Akhenaten became a focus of interest for Egyptologists, who saw him as a visionary humanitarian as well as the first monotheist.
The Birth of Moses
Amenhotep (IV), who was later known as Akhenaten and Moses, was born in Year 12 of his father Amenhotep III, 1394 BC, in the summer royal palace in the border city of Zarw in northern Sinai. Zarw, modern Kantara East, was the center of the land of Goshen where the Israelites dwelt, and in the same location where the biblical Moses was born. But contrary to the biblical account, Moses was born inside the royal palace. His mother Queen Tiye had an elder son, Tuthmosis, who died a short time before Amenhotep’s birth. Tuthmosis had been educated and trained at the royal residence in Memphis before he mysteriously disappeared—believed to have been kidnapped and assassinated by the Amun priests(followers of Taurus the Bull, as in Golden Calf from the bible). Fearing for his safety, Tiye sent her son, the infant Amenhotep, by water to the safekeeping of her father’s Israelite family outside the walls of Zarw. (Which was the origin of the biblical baby-in-the-bulrushes story.)
The reason for the priests’ hostility to the young prince was the fact that Tiye, his mother, an Israelite(follower of Aries the Ram), was not the legitimate heiress to the throne(according to their ideas). She couldn’t therefore be accepted as a consort for the state god Amun(the God of the Taurians). If Tiye’s son acceded to the throne, this would be regarded as forming a new dynasty of non-Amunite kings over Egypt. During his early years, his mother kept Amenhotep away from both the royal residences at Memphis and Thebes. He spent his childhood at the border city of Zarw, nursed by the wife of the queen’s younger brother, General Aye(possibly Ephraim of the bible). Later, Amenhotep(IV) was moved to Heliopolis(home of the priesthood of the Shepherd Kings that wanted to lead all the Egyptian people into the age of Aries the Ram), north of Cairo, to receive his education under the supervision of Anen(Manassas), the priest of Ra, who was the elder brother of Queen Tiye.Young Amenhotep first appeared at the capital city of Thebes when he reached the age of sixteen. There he met Nefertiti, his half-sister, daughter of Sitamun, and fell in love with her. Tiye, his mother, encouraged this relationship, realizing that his marriage to Nefertiti, the heiress, was the only way he could gain the right to follow his father on the throne(these Arian followers had a plan to sit on the Egyptian throne again).Akhenaten, Nefertiti & Daughter
Akhenaten Co-RegentFollowing his marriage to Nefertiti, Amenhotep III decided to make Amenhotep(Moses) his co-regent which upset the priests of Amun(the followers of Taurus). The conflict between Amenhotep III and the priests had started sixteen years earlier as a result of his marriage to Tiye, an Israelite(follower of Aries), daughter of Yuya(Joseph) and Tuya(followers of Aries). During his reign, Nefertiti was active in supporting her husband, Amenhotep(Moses), and was more prominently seen at official occasions as well as on all monuments. However, the climate of hostility that surrounded Amenhotep at the time of his birth surfaced again after his appointment as CO-regent On joining his father on the throne Amenhotep became Amenhotep IV. The Amun priesthood opposed this appointment, and openly challenged Amenhotep III’s decision. When the priests of Amun objected to his appointment, the young CO-regent responded by building temples to his new God, Aten(his name was changed to reflect the new age). He built three temples for Aten: one at the back end of the Karnak complex, another at Luxor near the Nile bank, and the third at Memphis. Amenhotep lV snubbed the Amun priests by not inviting them to any of the festivities in the early part of his co-regency and, in his fourth year, when he celebrated his bed festival jubilee, he banned all deities but his own God from the occasion. Twelve months later he(Amenhotep IV) made a further break with tradition by changing his name to Akhenaten in honor of his new deity(Aten, Atum aka Adonai was not new to Egypt, but can be traced back to its origins). To the resentful Egyptian establishment, Aten was seen as a challenger who would replace the powerful State god, Amun, not falling under his domination. In the tense climate that prevailed, Tiye arranged a compromise by persuading her son to leave Thebes and establish a new capital at Amarna in Middle Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile. A New City for AtenThe situation calmed down following Akhenaten’s departure, while
Amenhotep III ruled alone in Thebes. For the site of his new city at Amarna, Akhenaten chose a land that belonged to no god or goddess. The building started in his Year 4 and ended in Year 8; however he and his family moved from Thebes to Amarna in Year 6. At that point of land, the cliffs of the high desert receded from the river, leaving a great semi-circle about eight miles long and three miles broad. Here Akhenaten built his new capital, Akhetaten, the Horizon of Aten(the Sun), where he and his followers would be free to worship their God. Huge boundary stelae, marking the limits of the city and recording the story of its foundation, were carved in the surrounding cliffs. Akhetaten was a capital city possessed of both dignity and architectural harmony. Its main streets ran parallel to the Nile with the most important of them, the King’s Way, connecting the city’s most prominent buildings, including the King’s House, where Akhenaten and his family had their private residence. To the south of the house was the king’s private temple to Aten. Military CoupFollowing the death of his father, Amenhotep III, in Akhenaten’s Year 12, he organized a great celebration at Amarna for foreign princes bearing tribute because of his assumption to sole rule.Akhenaten and Nefertiti appeared to receive the tribute of foreign missions coming from Syria, Palestine, Nubia, and the Mediterranean islands, who offered them their gifts. It was at that time the king decided to abolish the worship of all gods in Egypt—except Aten(Ra).Akhenaten gave orders to his troops, instructing them to close all the temples, confiscate their estates, and sack the priests(of Amun or Amen), leaving only Aten’s temples throughout the country. Units were dispatched to excise the names of the ancient gods wherever they were found written or engraved, a course that can only have created mounting new opposition to his already rejected authority. This persecution, which entailed the closing of the temples, the confiscation of property, the dispatch of artisans who hacked out the names of the deities from inscriptions, the banishment of the clergy, and the excommunication of Amun’s name, was supervised by the army. Each time a squad of workmen entered a temple or tomb to destroy the name of Amun, it was supported by a squad of soldiers who came to see that the royal decree was carried out without opposition. The persecution of the old gods, however, proved to be hateful to the majority of Egyptians, including the members of the army. Ultimately, the harshness of the persecution had a certain reaction upon the soldiers who, themselves, had been raised in the old beliefs. After all, the officers and soldiers themselves believed in the same gods whose images the king ordered them to destroy; they worshipped in the very temples that they were ordered to close. A conflict arose between the king and his army. Horemheb, Pa-Ramses, and Seti planned a military coup against the king, and ordered their troops from the north and south to move toward Amarna. When the army and chariots came face to face at Amarna’s borders, Aye(Ephraim) advised the king to abdicate the throne to his son, Tutankhaten(King Tut), in order to save the dynasty and avoid a wholesale defection and perhaps even a civil war. Akhenaten agreed to abdicate and left Amarna with Pa-Nehesy, the high priest of Aten, and a few of his followers, to live in exile in the area of Sarabit El-Khadem in southern Sinai. When Tutankhaten took the throne, he changed his name to Tutankhamun to appease the priesthood of the powerful State god Amun. He did not, however, renounce the Atenist religion of his father.